Ammonia is an inorganic compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, with the formula NH3. It is a colorless gas with a distinct pungent smell and is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms. It contributes significantly to terrestrial organisms' nutritional needs by serving as a precursor to 45% of the world's food and fertilizers. Around 70% of ammonia is used to make fertilizers in various forms and compositions, such as urea and diammonium phosphate. Ammonia is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products. The global industrial production of ammonia in 2021 was 235 million tonnes. Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tank cars or cylinders. The Haber process, invented at the beginning of the 20th century, revolutionized agriculture by enabling the production of ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen. NH3 boils at −33.34 °C (−28.012 °F) at a pressure of one atmosphere, so the liquid must be stored under pressure or at low temperature. Household ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH3 in water, with 26 degrees Baumé being the typical high-concentration commercial product. Ammonia is found in trace quantities on Earth, being produced from nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater, while ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac) and ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic districts. Crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonia guano. Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Substances containing ammonia or those similar to it are called ammoniacal.
The CAS Number of Ammonia is 7664-41-7
The Molecular Formula of Ammonia is H3N
The Molecular Mass of Ammonia is 17.03
The SMILES Notation of Ammonia is N
The InChI Notation of Ammonia is InChI=1S/H3N/h1H3